Thursday, September 18, 2008

Portuguese sauce

Portuguese sauce in Macanese cuisine, refers to a sauce made of curry and coconut milk, that is milder and richer than the usual curry. Its name purportedly came about because it first became popular in , then a Portuguese colony.

Pork chop bun

A pork chop bun is one of the most famous and popular snacks in Macau. The bun is extremely crispy outside and very soft inside. A freshly deep-fried or pan-fried pork chop is filled into the bun horizontally. Macau pork chop buns are made to order.

The ingredients of a pork chop bun are only a piece of pork chop and a bun without accessories like lettuce or cucumber.

Macanese cuisine

Macanese cuisine is unique to Macau, China and which consists of a blend of and cuisines, with significant influences from Southeast Asia and the Lusophone world. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, Latin America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as local Chinese ingredients.

Common cooking techniques include baking, grilling and roasting. The former, seldom seen in other styles of Chinese cooking, speaks to the eclectic nature of Macanese cooking. It is renowned for its flavour-blending culture, and modern Macanese cuisine may be considered a type of fusion cuisine.

Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with various spices including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon and bacalhau, giving special aromas and tastes. Famous dishes include Galinha à Portuguesa, Galinha à Africana , Bacalhau, Macanese Chili Shrimps and stir-fry curry crab. Other dishes might include pig's ear and papaya salad, rabbit stewed in wine, cinnamon and star anise. Tapas, are also part an integral part of Macanese cuisine.

The most popular snack is pork chop bun. The most popular dessert is ginger milk and .

The famous restaurants of Macau include the Restaurante Porto Interior, Restaurante Litoral, and Restaurante Espao.

Select Bibliography

* Ferreira Lamas, Jo?o António . ''A culinária dos macaenses''. Oporto: Lello & Irm?o.

* Gomes, Maria Margarida . ''A cozinha macaense''. Macau: Imprensa Nacional.

* Senna, Maria Celestina de Mello e . ''Cozinha de Macau''. Lisbon: Vega ISBN 972-699-575-2

Kapampangan cuisine

Lút?ng Kapampangan "differed noticeably from that of other groups in the Philippines." It has many similarities with Cantonese cuisine, particularly Macanese cuisine, with a touch of local, , , and even . The Kapampangan kitchen is the biggest and widely used room in the traditional household. When the Philippines was under Spanish rule, Spanish friars and sailors taught Kapampangans the basics of Spanish cooking. The Kapampangans were able to produce a unique blend that surprised the Spanish palate. Soon Spanish friars and government officials were entertaining foreign guests at the expense of Kapampangan households. In the late 18th century, the Arnedo clan of Apalit were commissioned by the colonial government to entertain foreign dignitaries that included a Cambodian prince and a Russian archduke. Kapampangans were given the task of creating the meal and menu that was served in the proclamation of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos, Bulacan.

Some popular Kapampangan dishes that have won over the Filipino palate across the country include its famous , the "tocino" or and their native version of the . A unique Kapampangan dish that is well enjoyed by other ethnic groups is ''nasing biringyi'' . Since ''nasing biringyi'' is so difficult to prepare, this unique Kapampangan dish can only be enjoyed during ''fiestas'' in Pampanga.

Kapampangan dishes that remain a challenge to other cultures include ''burung bulig'' of Candaba, ''betute tugak'' of and Magalang, ''adobung kamaru'' , ''calderetang barag'' , ''kubang asu'' of Macabebe and ''tidtad itik'' of Masantol.

Galinha a Portuguesa

Galinha à Portuguesa or "Portuguese-style Chicken" is a dish of Macanese cuisine. Despite its name, ''Galinha à Portuguesa'' did not originate from Portugal as such; rather it came from Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China formerly under Portuguese rule, where the dish was given the "Portuguese" name to enhance its status.

''Galinha à Portuguesa'' is served as pieces of chicken, potato and sometimes boiled rice with a mild, coconut-based, curry-like sauce, baked till golden and with a distinctive aroma.

Galinha a Africana

Galinha à Africana , often known as ''Frango assado'' is a dish of Portuguese cuisine, which is a barbecued chicken coated with spicy piri piri sauce.

''Galinha à Africana'' is also an important dish in Portugal's , such as Macau . In recent years, several fast food chains selling the chicken have been established in a number of countries.


Bacalhau means codfish in , but the word almost always refers to and the dishes made from it, as fresh cod is rarely consumed in Portugal.


''Bacalhau'' dishes are common in Portugal and in the north of Spain and to a lesser extent in its former colonies like Angola, Macau and Brazil. It is considered a delicacy and is also eaten on special occasions like Christmas Eve and Holy Week, especially on Good Friday. A related dish made from it is ''bolinhos de bacalhau'' or ''pastéis de bacalhau''. These deep-fried balls contain less expensive parts of the clipfish mixed together with potatoes, s and parsley, in the same vein as fishcakes.

Main ingredient

The essential ingredient, , usually comes from Norway or . It used to be very affordable, but with the and dismantling of Portuguese ''bacalhoeiro'' fleet, it became more expensive, especially near Christmas time.

History of ''bacalhau'' dishes

Salt cod has been produced for at least 500 years, since the time of the European discoveries. Before refrigeration, there was a need to preserve the codfish; and salting are ancient techniques to keep many nutrients and the process makes the codfish tastier.

The Portuguese tried to use this method of drying and salting several fishes from their waters, but the ideal fish came from much further north. With the "discovery" of Newfoundland in 1497, they started fishing its cod-rich Grand Banks. Thus, ' became a staple of the Portuguese cuisine, nicknamed ' . From the 18th century the town of Kristiansund in Norway became an important place of producing bacalao or klippfish.

One of the reasons for this popularity in Portugal and other Catholic countries, was because of the many days on which the Church forbade the eating of meat. '''' dishes were eaten instead.

''Bacalhau'' dishes

There are numerous ''bacalhau'' recipe variations, depending on region and tradition. It is said there are more than 365 ways to cook ''bacalhau'', one for every day of the year; others say there are 1001 ways. But it is the main ''bacalhau'' recipes that are the most notable, and these have even gained fame in Southeast Asia. Many Asian tourists head to Macau just to eat ''bacalhau'', an area where fresh seafood is also very popular.

Bacalhau is often served with potatoes. Green or mature wines are served alongside.

Some Bacalhau dishes:
*Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá
*Bacalhau à Brás
*Bacalhau da Consoada , Eaten in Christmas Eve.
**In Christmas Lunch, there is the "Farrapo Velho" or "Roupa Velha" which is made upon the leftovers of Bacalhau da Consoada and after the spirits have "eaten" their share afternight.
*Bacalhau à Zé do Pipo
*Bacalhau à Zé do Telhado
*Bacalhau Espiritual
*Bacalhau Gratinado
*Bacalhau com Migas e Broa
*Bacalhau no Forno
*Bacalhau com Natas
*Bacalhau ao Vinho do Porto
*Bacalhau com Cerveja
*Bacalhau com Queijo
*Bacalhau com Leite
*Bacalhau com Alhos e Piment?o
*Bacalhau com Pimento e Chouri?o
*Bacalhau com Tomate
*Bacalhau com Piri-piri
*Bacalhau com Molho de Ervas Picadas
*Bacalhau com Molho de Azeite
*Bacalhau com Molho de Camar?o
*Bacalhau com Molho de Caril
*Bacalhau com Molho de Tomate
*Bacalhau com Molho Picante

Some Regional Bacalhau dishes include:
*Bacalhau à Minhota
*Bacalhau Recheado à Narcisa
*Bacalhau à Lagareiro
*Bacalhau à Margarida da Pra?a
*Bacalhau à Novainho
*Bacalhau à S?o Louren?o da Montaria
*Bacalhau Assado na Brasa
*Bacalhau com Salpic?o e P?o de Milho
*Bacalhau de Tiborna
*Bacalhau à Moda de Caminha
*Bacalhau à Moda de Viana do Castelo
*Bacalhau à Moda do Porto
*Bacalhau à Moda do Douro
*Bacalhau Frito
*Bacalhau Frito à A?oriana
*Bacalhau Podre
*Bacalhau à Romeu
*Bacalhau à Moda de Ervedosa
*Bacalhau à Assis
*Bacalhau à Madre Paula
*Bacalhau à Lisbonense
*Bacalhau à Algarvia
*Bacalhau que Nunca Chega
*Poejada de Bacalhau
*Arroz de Bacalhau no Forno

Besides the dishes listed above, there are the ''Bolinhos de Bacalhau'' or ''Pastéis de Bacalhau'' : literally "Codfish cakes", made up of potatoes, , parsley, and some minor ingredients with dry salted codfish. The Bolinhos or Pastéis de Bacalhau are fried and served cold before meals. Another similar delicacies are the "Pataniscas de Bacalhau" and the "Iscas de Bacalhau", which are often only serverd in traditional ''Tavernas'' in Northern Portugal and often preferred by older people.

"Bolinhos de bacalhau" in Brazil are usually served in bars as an appetizer consumed with beer.